Publications

Below are papers that were authored by P3 Cohort team members (names are bolded) in the last five years related to the prediction, prevention and intervention for preterm birth and the health of preterm infants and children.

2022

Cairncross ZF, Couloigner I, Ryan MC, McMorris C, Muehlenbachs L, Nikolaou N, Wong RC, Hawkins SM, Bertazzon S, Cabaj J, Metcalfe A. 2002. Association Between Residential Proximity to Hydraulic Fracturing Sites and Adverse Birth Outcomes. JAMA Pediatr. 2022 Apr 4. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.0306

Gurram Venkata SKR, Srivastava A, Murthy P, Scott JN, Zein H, Leijser L, Ghosh A, Momin S, Thomas S, Mohammad K. 2022. Hemodynamic Quality Improvement Bundle to Reduce the Use of Inotropes in Extreme Preterm Neonates. Paediatr Drugs 24(3):259-267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40272-022-00502-

Hornaday KK, Wood EM, Slater DM. 2022. Is there a maternal blood biomarker that can predict spontaneous preterm birth prior to labour onset? A systematic review. PLoS One. 2022 Apr 4;17(4):e0265853. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0265853

Koch AK, Burger RJ, Schuit E, Fernando Mateus J, Goya M, Carreras E, Bianocolin S, Barzilay E, Soliman N, Cooper S, Metcalfe A, Lodha A, Fichera A, Stagnati V, Kawamura H, Rustico M, Munim S, Russo F, Nassar A, Rode L, Lim A, Liem S, Grantz K, Hack K, Tang S, Combs A, Serra V, Perales A, Khalil A, Barrett J, Ganzevoort W, Gordign SJ, Morris RK, Mol BW, Li W. 2022. Timing of delivery for twins affected by growth discordance and growth restriction: an individual participant data meta-analysis. In press Obstetrics and Gynecology. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004789

Lithgow K, Buchholz V, D’Aubeterre A, Ku E, Konschuh S, and Sycuro LK. 2022. Protease activities of vaginal Porphyromonas species disrupt coagulation and extracellular matrix in the cervicovaginal niche. npj Biofilms & Microbiomes, 2022; 8(1):8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41522-022-00270-7

Matenchuk BA, Rosychuk RJ, Rowe BH, Metcalfe A, Chari R, Crawford S, Jelinski S, Serrano-Lomelin J, Ospina MB. 2022. Emergency department visits during the postpartum period: A Canadian cohort study. In press. Annals of Emergency Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.09.419

Mohammad K, Momin S, Murthy P, Zein H, Scott JN, Mehrem AA, Ghosh A, Javadyan A, Awad EA, Venkata SKRG, Paul R, Rombough B, Bolderheij L, Dossani S, Montpetit J, Eshemokhai P, Fiedrich E, Thomas S. 2022. Impact of quality improvement outreach education on the incidence of acute brain injury in transported neonates born premature. J Perinatol. 2022 May 4. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-022-01409-2

Raffe-Devine J, Somerset DA, Metcalfe A, Cairncross ZF. 2022. Maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes of elective fetal reduction among multiple gestation pregnancies: a systematic review. JOGC 44(1): P60-P70.E12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2021.07.020

2021

Adhikari K, Patten SB, Patel AB, Premji S, Tough S, Letourneau N, Giesbrecht G, Metcalfe A. 2021. Data Harmonization and Data Pooling from Cohort Studies: A Practical Approach for Data Management. In press International Journal of Population Data Science 

Adhikari K, Patten SB, Williamson T, Patel AB, Premji S, Tough S, Letourneau N, Giesbrecht G, Metcalfe A. 2021. Assessment of anxiety during pregnancy: are existing multiple anxiety scales suitable and comparable in measuring anxiety during pregnancy? Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 42(2):140-146. https://doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2020.1725462

Adhikari K, Patten SB, Patel AB, Premji S, Tough S, Letourneau N, Giesbrecht G, Metcalfe A. 2021. Data Harmonization and Data Pooling from Cohort Studies: A Practical Approach for Data Management. International Journal of Population Data Science 6(1):1680. https://doi.org/10.23889/ijpds.v6i1.1680

Assis Z, Kirton A, Pauranik A, Sherriff M, Wei XC. Idiopathic Neonatal Subpial Hemorrhage with Underlying Cerebral Infarct: Imaging Features and Clinical Outcome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2021 Jan;42(1):185-193. https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6872.

Dunbar MJ, Woodward K, Leijser LM, Kirton A. Antenatal diagnosis of fetal intraventricular hemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2021 Feb;63(2):144-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14713.

Fenton TR, Nasser R, Creighton D, Tang S, Sauve R, Bilan D, Fenton CJ, Eliasziw M. Weight, length, and head circumference at 36 weeks are not predictive of later cognitive impairment in very preterm infants. J Perinatol. 2021 Mar;41(3):606-614. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41372-020-00855-0.

Hetherington E, Adhikari K, Tomfohr-Madsen L, Patten SB, Metcalfe A. 2021. Birth outcomes, pregnancy complications, and mental health after the 2013 Calgary flood: a difference in difference analysis. PLOS One 16(2): e0246670.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246670

Nahirney M, Chaput K, Metcalfe A. Assessing the role of maternal race on the prediction of NICU admission by three neonatal growth standards: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Meternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 2021;34(8):1233-1240. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/14767058.2019.1631791.

MacKinnon AL, Madsen JW, Giesbrecht GF, Campbell T, Carlson LE, Dimidjian S. Letourneau N, Tough S, Tomfohr-Madsen L. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in Pregnancy on Psychological Distress and Gestational Age: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Mindfulness. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01585-2.

McNeil, DA, Benzies, KM, Zanoni, P, Kurilova J. Alberta Family Integrated Care (FICare)™: From engaged clinicians in a cluster randomized controlled trial to health system partnership in scale and spread across a province. In: McCutcheon C, Reszel J, Kothari A, Graham ID, editors. How We Work Together: The Integrated Knowledge Translation Research Network Casebook. 2021. Volume 4, 16-19. Ottawa, ON: Integrated Knowledge Translation Research Network. Available here.

Mohammad K, Scott JN, Leijser LM, Zein H, Afifi J, Piedboeuf B, de Vries LS, van Wezel-Meijler G, Lee SK, Shah PS. Consensus Approach for Standardizing the Screening and Classification of Preterm Brain Injury Diagnosed With Cranial Ultrasound: A Canadian Perspective. Front Pediatr. 2021 Mar 8;9:618236. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.618236.

Mitra S, Jain A, Ting JY, Ben Fadel N, Drolet C, Abou Mehrem A, Soraisham A, Jasani B, Louis D, Lapointe A, Dorling J, Khurshid F, Hyderi A, Kumaran K, Bodani J, Weisz D, Alvaro R, Adie M, Stavel M, Morin A, Bhattacharya S, Kanungo J, Canning R, Ye XY, Hatfield T, Gardner CE, Shah P. Relative effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapeutic agents for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants: a protocol for a multicentre comparative effectiveness study (CANRxPDA). BMJ Open. 2021 May 5;11(5):e050682. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050682.

Nahirney M, Chaput K, Metcalfe A. Assessing the role of maternal race on the prediction of NICU admission by three neonatal growth standards: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 2021;34(8):1233-1240. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/14767058.2019.1631791.

Nieuwets A, Cizmeci MN, Groenendaal F, Leijser LM, Koopman C, Benders MJNL, Dudink J, de Vries LS, van der Aa NE. 2021.  Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation affects white matter maturation in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2021 Aug 26. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01704-2

Qureshi M, Shah PS, Abdelgadir D, Ye XY, Afifi J, Yuen R, Crossman SC, Taylor B, Mohammad K, Piedboeuf B, Aziz K. Canadian Neonatal Network investigators. Gestational Age-Dependent Variations in Effects of Prophylactic Indomethacin on Brain Injury and Intestinal Injury. J Pediatr. 2021 Mar 7:S0022-3476(21)00216-X. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.02.073.

Ramage K, Tough S, Scott C, McLaughlin AM, Metcalfe A. 2021. Trends in adolescent rapid repeat pregnancy in Canada. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Canada 43(5):589-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2020.09.024

Roychoudhury S, Lodha A, Synnes A, Abou Mehrem A, Canning R, Banihani R, Beltempo M, Theriault K, Yang J, Shah PS, Soraisham AS. 2021. Canadian Neonatal Network; Canadian Preterm Birth Network; Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network Investigators. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants conceived by assisted reproductive technology. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 225(3):276.e1-276.e9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.03.027

Scime NV, Metcalfe A, Nettel-Aguirre A, Tough SC, Chaput KH. 2021. Association of prenatal medical risk with breastfeeding outcomes up to 12 months in a community-based birth cohort. International Breastfeeding Journal 16:69. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13006-021-00413-0

Wood EM, Hornaday KK, Slater DM (2021) Prostaglandins in biofluids in pregnancy and labour: A systematic review. PLOS ONE 16(11): e0260115. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0260115.

Zanoni, P., Scime, N. V., Benzies, K. M., McNeil, D. A., Mrklas, K. (2021). Facilitators and barriers to implementation of Alberta Family Integrated Care (FICare) in Level II Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU): a qualitative process evaluation sub-study of a multi-centre cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). BMJ Open 2021;11:e054938. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/10/e054938.

Zein H, Mohammad K, Leijser LM, Brundler MA, Kirton A, Esser MJ. Cord Blood Cytokine Levels Correlate With Types of Placental Pathology in Extremely Preterm Infants. Front Pediatr. 2021 Mar 11;9:607684. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.607684.

2020

Adhikari K, Patten SB, Williamson T, Patel AB, Premji S, Tough S, Letourneau N, Giesbrecht G, Metcalfe A.Neighbourhood socioeconomic status modifies the association between anxiety and depression during pregnancy and preterm birth: a community-based Canadian cohort study. BMJ Open 2020; 10:e031035. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031035.

Benzies KM, Aziz K, Shah V,  Isaranuwatchai W, Scotland J, Larocque J, Mrklas KJ, Naugler C, Stelfox HT, Chari R, Soraisham A, Akierman AR, Phillipos E, Amin H, Hoch J, Zanoni P, Kurilova J, Lodha A, the Alberta Family Integrated Care (FICare) Team. Effectiveness of Alberta Family Integrated Care (FICare) in Level II Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) on infant and maternal outcomes: a provincial, pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatrics, 2020; 20:535. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02438-6.

Brockway, M, Benzies, KM, Carr E, Aziz K. Does breastfeeding self-efficacy theory apply to mothers of moderate and late preterm infants? A qualitative exploration. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2020; 29, 2872–2885. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15304.

Cairncross ZF, Chaput KH, McMorris C, Ospina M, Brown HK, Metcalfe A. Roles of the underlying cause of delivery and gestational age on long-term child health. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 2020; 34(3):331-340.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12648.

Cizmeci MN, de Vries LS, Ly LG, van Haastert IC, Groenendaal F, Kelly EN, Traubici J, Whyte HE, Leijser LM. Periventricular Hemorrhagic Infarction in Very Preterm Infants: Characteristic Sonographic Findings and Association with Neurodevelopmental Outcome at Age 2 Years. J Pediatr. 2020; Feb;217:79-85.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.09.081.

Jijon H, Ueno A, Sharifi N, Leung Y, Ghosh S, Seow CH. Elevated interferon-gamma levels during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternofetal outcomes in IBD. Gut. 2020 Oct;69(10):1895-1897. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319656.

Leijser LM, Scott JN, Roychoudhury S, Zein H, Murthy P, Thomas SP, Mohammad K; Calgary Neonatal Neuro-Critical Care Program. Post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation: inter-observer reliability of ventricular size measurements in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2020 Nov 12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-01245-0.

Mackay L, Benzies K, Barnard C, Raffin Bouchal S. 2020. Health Care Professionals’ Experiences of Providing Care to Hospitalized Medically Fragile Infants and Their Parents. J Pediatr Nurs. 53:14-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2020.04.016

Mohammad K, Murthy P, Aguinaga F, Fajardo C, Eguiguren L, Castro Y, Guzman V, Scott JN, Chan S, Soraisham A, Stritzke A, Al Awad E, Kamaluddeen M, Thomas S. Sonographic Clinical Assessment of the Newborn Group. Simulation-Based Structured Education Supports Focused Neonatal Cranial Ultrasound Training. J Ultrasound Med. 2020 Jun;39(6):1195-1201. https://doi.org/10.1002/jum.15207.

Murthy P, Zein H, Thomas S, Scott JN, Abou Mehrem A, Esser MJ, Lodha A, Metcalfe C, Kowal D, Irvine L, Scotland J, Leijser L, Mohammad K. Neuroprotection Care Bundle Implementation to Decrease Acute Brain Injury in Preterm Infants. Pediatr Neurol. 2020 Sep;110:42-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.04.016.

Ross KM, Carroll JE, Horvath S, Hobel CJ, Coussons-Read ME, Dunkel Schetter C. Epigenetic age and pregnancy outcomes: GrimAge acceleration is associated with shorter gestational length and lower birthweight. Clin Epigenetics. 2020 Aug 6;12(1):120. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-020-00909-2.

Scime N, Chaput KH, Farris P, Quan H, Tough SC, Metcalfe A. Pregnancy complications and risk of preterm birth according to maternal age: a population-based study of delivery hospitalizations in Alberta. Acta Obstétrica Gynocologica Scandinavica 2020; 99(4):459-468. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13769.

Young JM, Vandewouw MM, Whyte HEA, Leijser LM, Taylor MJ. Resilience and Vulnerability: Neurodevelopment of Very Preterm Children at Four Years of Age. Front Hum Neurosci. 2020 Jul 14;14:219. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00219.

2019

Adhikari K, Patten SB, Williamson T, Patel AB, Premji S, Tough S, Letourneau N, Giesbrecht G, Metcalfe A. Does neighbourhood socioeconomic status predict the risk of preterm birth? A community-based Canadian cohort study. BMJ Open 2019; 9:e025341. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025341.

Benzies K, Shah V, Aziz K, Lodha A, Misfeldt R. The health care system is making ‘too much noise’ to provide family-centred care in neonatal intensive care units: Perspectives of health care providers and hospital administrators. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 2019; 60, 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iccn.2018.05.001.

Brockway M, Benzies K, Carr E, Aziz K. Breastfeeding self-efficacy and breastmilk feeding for moderate and late preterm infants in the Family Integrated Care trial: A mixed methods protocol.  International Breastfeeding Journal, 2019; 13, 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13006-018-0168-7.

Leijser LM, de Vries LS. Preterm brain injury: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage and post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Handb Clin Neurol. 2019;162:173-199. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00008-4. PMID: 31324310. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00008-4.

Ross KM, Carroll JE, Dunkel Schetter C, Hobel C, Cole SW. Pro-inflammatory immune cell gene expression during the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with shorter gestational length and lower birthweight. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2019 Dec;82(6):e13190. https://doi.org/10.1111/aji.13190.

Ross KM, Dunkel Schetter C, McLemore MR, Chambers BD, Paynter RA, Baer R, Feuer SK, Flowers E, Karasek D, Pantell M, Prather AA, Ryckman K, Jelliffe-Pawlowski L. Socioeconomic Status, Preeclampsia Risk and Gestational Length in Black and White Women. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2019 Dec;6(6):1182-1191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-019-00619-3.

Scime NV, Gavarkovs AG, Chaput KH. The effect of skin-to-skin care on postpartum depression among mothers of preterm or low birthweight infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2019 Jun 15; 253:376-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.101.

Tomfohr-Madsen L, Cameron EE, Dunkel Schetter C, Campbell T, O’Beirne M, Letourneau N, Giesbrecht GF. Pregnancy anxiety and preterm birth: The moderating role of sleep. Health Psychol. 2019 Nov;38(11):1025-1035. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000792.

2018

Doktorchik C, Premji S, Slater D, Williamson T, Tough S, Patten S. Patterns of change in anxiety and depression during pregnancy predict preterm birth. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2018 Feb; 227: 71-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.001.

Lasiuk G, Penner J, Benzies K, Jubinville J, Hegadoren K, van Manen M. Evaluation of a storybook resource for parents in the neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Perinatal Education, 2018, 27(4), 220-232. https://doi.org/10.1891/1058-1243.27.4.220.

Leijser LM, Miller SP, van Wezel-Meijler G, Brouwer AJ, Traubici J, van Haastert IC, Whyte HE, Groenendaal F, Kulkarni AV, Han KS, Woerdeman PA, Church PT, Kelly EN, van Straaten HLM, Ly LG, de Vries LS. Posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation in preterm infants: When best to intervene? Neurology. 2018 Feb 20;90(8):e698-e706. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000004984.

Leijser LM, Siddiqi A, Miller SP. Imaging Evidence of the Effect of Socio-Economic Status on Brain Structure and Development. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2018 Oct;27:26-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spen.2018.03.004.

2017

Benzies KM, Magill-Evans J, Ballantyne M,  Kurilova J. Longitudinal patterns of early development in Canadian late preterm infants: A prospective cohort study. Journal of Child Health Care, 2017; 21(1), 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493516689167.

Benzies KM, Shah V, Aziz K, Isaranuwatchai W, Palacio-Derflingher L, Scotland J, Larocque J., Mrklas K, Suter E, Naugler C, Stelfox HT, Chari R, Lodha A, the Alberta FICare Level II NICU Study Team. Family Integrated Care (FICare) in level II neonatal intensive care units: Protocol of a pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled trial of clinical effectiveness and cost of integrating families into the care of moderate and late preterm infants. Trials, 2017; 18, 467.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-2181-3.

Morisaki N, Ganchimeg T, Vogel JP, Zeitlin J, Cecatti JG, Souza JP, Pileggi Castro C, Torloni MR, Ota E, Mori R, Dolan SM, Tough S, Mittal S, Bataglia V, Yadamsuren B, Kramer MS, PREBIC Epidemiology Working Group and the WHO-MCS Research Network. Impact of stillbirths on international comparisons of preterm birth rates: a secondary analysis of the WHO multi-country survey of maternal and newborn health. International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. August 2017, 124(9): 1346-1354. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.14548.

Morisaki N, Zhang X, Ganchimeg T, Vogel J, Souza J, Cecatti J, Torloni M, Ota E, Mori R, Mittal S, Tough S, Dolan S, Kramer M. Provider-initiated delivery, late preterm birth, and perinatal mortality: A secondary analysis of the WHO multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health. BMJ Global Health. May 2017, 2(e000204): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2016-000204.

Mughal MK, Ginn C, Magill-Evans J,  Benzies KM.  Parenting stress and development of late preterm infants at 4 months corrected age. Research in Nursing and Health, 2017; 40(2). https://doi.org /10.1002/nur.21809.

Palmer L, Grabowska K, Burrows J, Rowe H, Billing E, Metcalfe A. Hospital versus home care for pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes: a retrospective cohort study. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2017; 137(2):180-184. http://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12122.

Phillips C, Velji Z, Hanly C, Metcalfe A.  Risk of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2017; 7:e015402. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015402.

Soliman N, Chaput K, Alshaikh B, Yusuf K. Preeclampsia and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants less than 32 weeks’ gestation. American Journal of Perinatology 2017; 34(6): 585-592.  https://doi.org/ 10.1055/s-0036-1594017.

Wood SL, Tang S, Crawford S. Cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor and the risk of subsequent premature birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jul; 217(1):63.e1-63.e10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2017.03.006.

2016

Ballantyne M, Benzies K, McDonald S., Magill-Evans J, Tough S.  Risk of developmental delay: Comparison of late preterm and full term Canadian infants at age 12 months. Early Human Development, 2016; 101, 27-33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.04.004.

Benzies, K. Relational communications strategies to support family centered neonatal intensive care. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 2016; 30(3), 233-236. https://doi.org/10.1097/JPN.0000000000000195.

Heng YJ, Pennell CE, McDonald SW, Vinturache AE, Xu J, Lee MWF, Briollais L, Lyon AW, Slater DM, Bocking AD, de Koning L, Olson DM, Dolan SM, Tough SC, Lye SJ. Maternal whole blood gene expression at 18 and 28 weeks of gestation associated with spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. PLoS ONE. June 2016. 11(6): e0155191. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155191.

Richards JL, Kramer MS, Deb-Rinker P, Rouleau J, Mortensen L, Gissler M, Morken NH, Skjaerven R, Cnattingius S, Johansson S, Delnord M, Dolan SM, Morisaki N, Tough S, Zeitlin J, Kramer MR. Temporal trends in late preterm and early term birth rates in six high-income countries in North America and Europe and association with clinician-initiated obstetric interventions. JAMA. July 2016, 316(4): 410-419. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.9635.